Sudan is located between latitudes 8,45° and 23,8° North and 21,49° and 24,38° East longitude.
Climate in the North : Desert, it covers 29% of the area of the country where rainfall is scarce and limited to the two banks of the Nile agriculture. Groundwater areas include North Governorates, Nile, North Kordofan and North Darfur, The average annual rainfall in these regions vary between zero and 300 mm.
Located between latitudes 14 ° – 16 ° north, where rainfall varies between 300 à 500 mm and covers 20% of the area of Sudan. This area is known as a semi-desert region, fully pasture and lean in agriculture.
Sudan has enormous natural wealth and various agricultural resources, and is favorable to the growth of many agricultural crops that guarantee its food security, and enable it to contribute effectively to the achievement of regional and even global food security. The most important resources can be highlighted as follows :
|Sesame||Approximately 313,000 tonss|
|Cotton||Approximately 172,000 tons|
|Sugar Cane||Approximately 6 000,000 tons|
|Peanuts||Approximately 1000,000 tonss|
|Potatoes||Approximately 136,000 tons|
|Tomatoes||Approximately 240,000 tons|
|Common Sorghum||Approximately 4.5 million tons|
|Millet||Approximately 150,000 tons|
|Wheat||Approximately 200,000 tons|
– 35 million head of cattle
– 32 million head of sheep
– 36 million heads of goats
– 3.3 million head of camels
– 4 million head of horses / donkeys / cows
-Furthermore, Sudan has a large quantity of poultry which is estimated at about 45 million.
-The fish is estimated at around 100,000 tones per year.
Sudanese territory consists of plains, valleys, hills, sand dunes and mountains, and most of the land is rich in groundwater.
Arable land is estimated at about 200 million acres, in which free lands do not now exceed the 20%, equivalent to about 50 million acres. In addition, there are forested areas, shrubs and natural pastures, which contributed to the increase in the variety of livestock and large areas covered by rainwater and valleys and pits distributed in most parts of the country. With this diversity of soil comes a great diversity in climate over the entire length of the country from north to south.
Pasture and Forests :
The area of natural pastures in Sudan is estimated at about 57 million acres of forest and about 152 million acres, in addition to the great wealth in livestock and wildlife.
Types of Culture in Sudan :
is estimated at about 4.2 million acres of which approximately 3,000,000 hectares are subject to national agricultural projects.
It comprises about 80% of agricultural land in Sudan, and it depends on the amount and distribution of rainfall.
It is one of the most important types of agriculture in Sudan, because of the multiplicity of types of climates there. The sector accounts for more than 20 types in addition to medicinal and aromatic plants.
Source: Annual Report of the Food Security for the year 2012 – the General Directorate of Planning and Agricultural Economics
The Agricultural Sector represents with its two poles, both animal and vegetal, the backbone of the Sudanese Economy, as it contributes to about 34.2% of GDP, according to the estimation of the year 2012 , and approximately to 80% of the total non-oil Sudanese exports.