Agriculture in Sudan

Sudan is located between latitudes 8,45° and 23,8° North and 21,49° and 24,38° East longitude.
Climate in the North : Desert, it covers 29% of the area of the country where rainfall is scarce and limited to the two banks of the Nile agriculture. Groundwater areas include North Governorates, Nile, North Kordofan and North Darfur, The average annual rainfall in these regions vary between zero and 300 mm.

Zone II

Located between latitudes 14 ° – 16 ° north, where rainfall varies between 300 à 500 mm and covers 20% of the area of Sudan. This area is known as a semi-desert region, fully pasture and lean in agriculture.

The importance of the Agricultural Sector in the National Economy :

Sudan has enormous natural wealth and various agricultural resources, and is favorable to the growth of many agricultural crops that guarantee its food security, and enable it to contribute effectively to the achievement of regional and even global food security. The most important resources can be highlighted as follows :

  • Sudan has a very fertile agricultural land of more than 100 million hectares and huge water resources that are estimated at about 31.5 billion m3 , which represent the share of the Sudan from the Nile waters, to which is added a yearly total of 11 billion m3 of surface water , not coming from Nile, which source instead is rain and ground water.
  • Sudan has more than 104 million head of cattle and about 43,300 Poultries. In addition to counted wildlife animals used for their skins, and which represent alone a significant economic wealth, in addition to fresh and salt waters fish, which annual stock exceeds the 72,000 tons .
  • Sudan has a forest wealth estimated at 80 million acres, and a natural pasture estimated at 115 million acres.

Annual crop production in Sudan

SesameApproximately 313,000 tonss
Cotton Approximately 172,000 tons
Sugar Cane Approximately 6 000,000 tons
PeanutsApproximately 1000,000 tonss
PotatoesApproximately 136,000 tons
TomatoesApproximately 240,000 tons
Common Sorghum Approximately 4.5 million tons
Millet Approximately 150,000 tons
WheatApproximately 200,000 tons
Sudan has about 120 million animal head

35 million head of cattle
32 million head of sheep
36 million heads of goats
3.3 million head of camels
4 million head of horses / donkeys / cows

-Furthermore, Sudan has a large quantity of poultry which is estimated at about 45 million.
-The fish is estimated at around 100,000 tones per year.

Sudanese territory consists of plains, valleys, hills, sand dunes and mountains, and most of the land is rich in groundwater.

Arable land is estimated at about 200 million acres, in which free lands do not now exceed the 20%, equivalent to about 50 million acres. In addition, there are forested areas, shrubs and natural pastures, which contributed to the increase in the variety of livestock and large areas covered by rainwater and valleys and pits distributed in most parts of the country. With this diversity of soil comes a great diversity in climate over the entire length of the country from north to south.

Pasture and Forests :

The area of natural pastures in Sudan is estimated at about 57 million acres of forest and about 152 million acres, in addition to the great wealth in livestock and wildlife.

Types of Culture in Sudan :

  • The irrigated agriculture :

    is estimated at about 4.2 million acres of which approximately 3,000,000 hectares are subject to national agricultural projects.

  • Rainfed agriculture :

    It comprises about 80% of agricultural land in Sudan, and it depends on the amount and distribution of rainfall.

  • Horticulture :

    It is one of the most important types of agriculture in Sudan, because of the multiplicity of types of climates there. The sector accounts for more than 20 types in addition to medicinal and aromatic plants.

  • Water resources in Sudan are composed of rainwater, rivers, surface water and groundwater. Rainfall is abundant in the southern and west, while the dry north, is rather rich thanks to abundant groundwater resources.
  • The Sudanese share of the Nile waters according to the Nile Waters Agreement of 1959, is estimated at about 18.5 billion cubic meters per year, from which Sudan currently uses about 12.2 billion cubic meters.
  • The volume of seasonal water ratification in the valleys is around 3.3 billion cubic meters.
  • Rainwater is estimated at about 1,000 billion cubic meters.
  • Groundwater in Sudan covers 50% of the surface of the country.
  • The stock of groundwater in Sudan is about 15.2 billion cubic meters.
  • 70% agriculture in Sudan is traditional and uses primitive machines.
  • 30% of agriculture in Sudan is using modern machines.
  • 3 million farmers, of which approximately 60% are women.
  • Agricultural Sector relies on approximately 70% of the total population and hosts about  57% of the workforce.

Source: Annual Report of the Food Security for the year 2012 – the General Directorate of Planning and Agricultural Economics

The Agricultural Sector represents with its two poles, both animal and vegetal, the backbone of the Sudanese Economy, as it contributes to about 34.2% of GDP, according to the estimation of the year 2012 , and approximately to 80% of the total non-oil Sudanese exports.

Exports of agricultural crop for the year 2012

The Oilseeds :